It is a surgical abortion method that involves using gentle suction to terminate the pregnancy. There are two ways of vacuum aspiration (also known as suction aspiration):
Manual Vacuum Aspiration Surgical Abortion Method
The Manual Vacuum Aspiration procedure can be used in the early first trimester. It involves the use of a specially designed syringe for suction. However, this method is not available everywhere. But the availability is more than machine aspiration in certain geographic areas.
Machine Vacuum Aspiration Surgical Abortion Method
The Machine Vacuum Aspiration procedure is a common method used in the first trimester of pregnancy. The Machine vacuum aspiration abortion method involves the use of a thin tube called a cannula, which is attached by tubing with a bottle and a pump, which provides a gentle vacuum. The cannula is inserted into the uterus, the pump turns on, and the tissue is gently removed from the uterus.
It is also a kind of surgical abortion that health care experts commonly use during the second trimester of pregnancy. Before starting with the procedure general anesthetic. A speculum is inserted gently into the vagina, then dilators are used for opening the cervix, and then the pregnancy tissues are gently removed by using small forceps. Lastly, by the suction method, the remaining tissues are removed.
The possible reasons for undergoing vacuum aspiration are as follows:
- An induced therapeutic abortion
- A failed procedure of medical abortion
- Death of the fetus
- An incomplete miscarriage
- When the fetus has severe medical problems or abnormalities.
- A woman who is pregnant as a result of rape or incest may not confirm the pregnancy until the second trimester because of her emotional reaction to the incident.
- Delayed abortions due to the unavailability of affordable abortion specialists.
- Due to legal restrictions for a planned termination of pregnancy.
The potential risks of dilation and evacuation include:
- Injury to the uterine lining or cervix.
- Hole in the wall of the uterus, that is, uterine perforation.
- Moderate to severe bleeding
- Tissue may remain in the uterus after pregnancy termination
- Cramping abdominal pain and bleeding recur within a week of the abortion procedure.
- Blood clots.
The Risks are higher for surgical abortions done in the second trimester of pregnancy than for those done in the first trimester.
After the procedure
- Antibiotics are given so that to prevent infection.
- Take rest until feeling better to start with normal activities.
- Acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help relieve cramping pain. Be safe while eating medicines. Carefully read and follow all instructions on the label of the prescribed medicines.
- Medicines may be given to help the uterus contract and return back to its pre-pregnancy size.
- Do not have sex for at least 1 week, or longer, as advised by the health care expert.
- If started having intercourse again, use birth control. Also, use condoms to prevent infection.
When to seek medical help?
However, bleeding and infection can be a potential risk after treatment, though the chances are low. If such signs are shown then consulting the health care expert immediately should be the first step.
The patient should call the health care expert immediately if she has any of these symptoms after a termination of pregnancy:
- Severe bleeding
- Signs of infection like headache, body pain, dizziness
- Severe pain in the abdomen is untreatable by pain medicine, rest, or heat.
- Hot flushes or a fever of 100.4°F
- Vomiting not cured for more than 4 to 6 hours
- Sudden abdominal swelling or increased heart rate
- Foul-smelling vaginal discharge
- Pain, swelling, or redness near or in the genital area
Signs and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Hormonal changes after a pregnancy can cause depression or anxiety that requires treatment.
The surgical abortion method in the First-trimester is safe and effective and has few complications. In rare cases, the procedure of vacuum aspiration doesn’t successfully end a pregnancy. This generally happens during the early weeks of pregnancy.
The Dilation and evacuation abortion method is a very safe and effective method of pregnancy termination. It has become the standard treatment of care in the world for pregnancy termination in the second trimester of pregnancy.